I think that's a terrible thing, that is awful. My thoughts are they should go someplace else and sing it. George Key, great-great-grandson of yes, you guessed it Francis Scott Key, the man who wrote the original poem that eventually became the lyrics of The Star-Spangled Banner. George Key is half-Panamanian, but he cannot believe anyone singing the national anthem in Spanish could possibly understand the true meaning behind the song.
There was a man standing out on a ship watching the city of Baltimore being bombarded by the British at the time. It was the second revolutionary war. And so for somebody to come in here now, who doesn't understand the concept of why that was written and the hardships that were endured by these people -- they just don't understand what they're doing. You can read more about the story behind the national anthem here. Many of us with an American education may recall having learned some of this history, but would any of us have figured much of it out just from the lyrics -- especially given the fact that most if not all of us only learn and sing the first of the full four stanzas?
And if so, why would any of us English speakers need to learn the history in addition to the lyrics? Furthermore, on what basis does George Key believe that the Spanish lyrics don't tell the same story that the English lyrics tell? The translation of the first stanza is not perfect, of course; important factors such as fitting the lyrics to the same music, for example, accounts for some key differences.
But here is the translation of the Spanish version back into English alongside the original English version. Can anyone honestly say that one version says more about the British bombing of Baltimore than the other? Do you see arising, by the light of the dawn, That which we hailed so much when the night fell? Its stars, its stripes yesterday streamed In the fierce combat, as a sign of victory, The glory of battle, in step with freedom, Throughout the night they proclaimed: "It is defending itself!
Is it still waving, beautiful, star-covered, Over the land of the free, the sacred flag? Its stars, its stripes, liberty, we are the same. We are brothers in our anthem. In the fierce combat, as a sign of victory, In the fierce combat My people, keep fighting! Throughout the night they proclaimed: "It is defending itself! O say, can you see, by the dawn's early light, What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming? Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming!
And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there: O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave? I can only conclude from all this that learning and singing the Spanish version of the anthem, in and of itself, will not make anyone more ignorant of the history behind the anthem than those who learn the English lyrics.
In fact, I daresay that encouraging folks to learn the Spanish version is likely to make many more of them curious about the history of the anthem and of the country. How in the world can that be a bad thing? But enough with the digressions. Instead of making this sort of point, though, Day to Day co-host Alex Chadwick turns the tables on "Americans":. The bold italics on Americans above reflects Chadwick's emphasis on this word -- but was it meant to suggest that these were English-speaking Americans who were surveyed, or gulp legal Americans, or what?
I don't think the survey said anything about this issue; see this ABC News piece on the Harris survey, from almost two years ago, which leads us to The National Anthem Project website of which "First lady Laura Bush has now become honorary chairwoman" , which has more information about the survey and a very abbreviated version of the history behind the anthem including links to the anthem code and sheet music for the service version , the mariachi version , and the steel drum ensemble version -- how cool is that?
In any event, if you just juxtapose this "result" from the Harris survey with George Key's pronouncement, all you get is that we all really just need to learn the English version of the anthem better. The only problem seems to be that it's in Spanish, and that bugs some people -- and I'll never understand why. With typical timeliness, the Wikipedia article on The Star-Spangled Banner that I have linked to several times above also includes the Spanish version of the first stanza click here and scroll down plus a little note under " Other " that says:.
A Spanish language translation called " Nuestro Himno " "Our Anthem" was created in as a show of support to Latino immigrants in the United States. Similar to the English version of the Canadian national anthem, which was set to the tune of the French version but is not related to the text thereof, this song or himno is merely inspired by and is only an approximate not a word by word translation of the stanzas selected from Key's poem. The lyrics are written above. As such no claim is made that it is the Spanish language version of the United States' national anthem which itself technically is only a part of Key's full poem.
This is where I found the link to the Nuestro Himno Wikipedia article, also linked a few times above. Most interesting and relevant, though, is that there's a Spanish-language Wikipedia article on The Star-Spangled Banner , which has a briefer version of the history behind it still, more comprehensive than the one at The National Anthem Project , with two full translations La bandera estrellada and La bandera de estrellas , the latter dated by Francis Haffkine Snow -- see this Library of Congress entry , where it says that "[t]his version of the song was prepared by the U.
Bureau of Education". The lyrics of Nuestro Himno appears to be derived from this translation; it's generally similar, though some lyrics appear to have been "altered to soften war references". The author of the ABC News article Jim Avila seems to be unaware of the translation, and uses an even worse re-translation than I've found of Nuestro Himno into English to compare with the "classic English version" which, oddly enough, also has errors here :.
The current version will likely spark debate, because it is not an exact translation. Some of the classic lyrics have been changed for rhyming reasons while other phrases were altered to soften war references. For example:. English version: And the rockets red glare, bombs bursting in air gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.
Spanish version: In the fierce combat, the sign of victory, the flame of battle in step with liberty through the night it was said it was being defended. There are several other small errors in Avila's article, two of which are worth noting here. One is the name "Jimi Hendrix" being spelled "Jimmy Hendrix"; Jimi's infamous solo Stratocaster rendition of the national anthem at Woodstock was also brought up in both NPR segments, by way of making the point somewhat weakly, in my view that there is at least some artistic merit to so-called "corruptions" of the anthem.
The other is that "George Key" is identified as "Charles Key", who is quoted as saying:. That sure sounds like George to me. But just to be sure, I googled -- and found that indeed there is another descendant of Francis Scott Key named Charles. But I doubt that Charles was quoted above, because the key search result, a January 30, Seattle Post Intelligencer article , says:. I don't think it does that any more," he told a reporter.
By contrast, George's next most recent news-worthy activity appears to have been, in at the age of 71, a push to save the Pledge of Allegiance in Orange County schools. Note in particular the form of the answers. What the experiment shows is that language and animal cognition is a lot more complicated than scientists once thought and that there is no "single magic bullet" that separates man from beast, said Jeffrey Elman, a professor of cognitive science at UCSD, who was not part of the Gentner research team.
If I weren't generally so skeptical of the accuracy of journalists' quotes , I'd tease Jeff for producing a self-refuting mixed metaphor. Surely a pretty reliable way to differentiate between human and beast, in cross-species encounters, is to ask who's using a weapon to kill whom? At least, this is a criterion with high positive predictive value though much lower sensitivity But starlings may be more apt vocalizers and have a better grasp of language than non-human primates. Monkeys may be trapped like Franz Kafka's Gregor Samsa, a man metamorphosized into a bug and unable to communicate with the outside world, Hauser suggested.
Actually, I think I understand what Marc Hauser might be getting at, if he was quoted accurately. Perhaps he's staking out a position diametrically opposite to Wilhelm von Humboldt, who wrote that "The articulated sound, the foundation and essence of all speech, is extorted by man from his physical organs through an impulse of his soul; and the animal would be able to do likewise, if it were animated by the same urge.
Humboldt's idea was, I think, that the urge to communicate -- to act so as to affect others' knowledge and belief -- is the key thing, with the adaptations of the vocal organs and of the perceptual and motor-control systems being secondary consequences of the initially inexpert and faltering practice of communicative action. Hauser seems to be suggesting that monkeys have the urge, but evolution has somehow played them false, so that differential effectiveness of communicative action has not been able to act as a selective force.
There's been a lot of discussion recently in the popular press and in the blogosphere about Timothy Q. Gentner, Kimberly M. Nusbaum, " Recursive syntactic pattern learning by songbirds ", Nature, 27 April What's said to be at issue here is whether "European starlings Sturnus vulgaris accurately recognize acoustic patterns defined by a recursive, self-embedding, context-free grammar.
Humans regularly produce new utterances that are understood by other members of the same language community. Linguistic theories account for this ability through the use of syntactic rules or generative grammars that describe the acceptable structure of utterances. Recent hypotheses make the central claim that the capacity for syntactic recursion forms the computational core of a uniquely human language faculty. Specifically, Gentner et al. Fitch and Hauser claimed to show that humans are able to handle a kind of grammar called context-free, whereas cotton-top tamarins can't do this, but can only handle finite-state grammars.
In previous posts, I've been highly skeptical of Fitch and Hauser's interpretation of their results:. Apparently not. So I'm not surprised to learn that Gentner et al. However, I don't think that Gentner's success tells us any more about grammatical abilities or the lack of them than Fitch and Hauser's failure did. That's not because I think that these experiments were badly executed, or that their results are not interesting. There are two key problems, in my opinion. First, we're asked to evaluate the claim that a creature does or doesn't have the ability to process types of sequences conceptually requiring an unbounded number of states, on the basis of experiments that deal with a small number of short sequences.
Any competent computer science undergraduate can set up a finite automaton that can process the sequences used in these papers; and if she's taken a machine learning course, she should be able to set up several sorts of models that can learn the distinctions in question, without being able to deal with general context-free or "embedding" languages at all.
See here and here for some discussions of one way to approach this. And second, if we make a serious attempt to investigate what it would be like to have the ability to process general context-free languages, even in the case of fairly short strings, we will quickly find that humans fail the test, at least if we approach the problem in the way that Fitch, Hauser, Genter et al. I'll try to explain and exemplify this in a minute, but first let me temper the generally skeptical tone of this and previous posts on the subject.
I do believe that most? I also think that experiments like these are well worth doing, and are likely to lead to some real insights about biological pattern processing. However, I remain skeptical that such experiments are telling us which animals can process what type of grammar. To see why, let's start with the most basic and simplest context-free language, the Dyck language. As the Wikipedia explains :. In the theory of formal languages of computer science, mathematics, and linguistics, the Dyck language Dyck being pronounced "deek" is the language consisting of those balanced strings of parentheses [ and ].
Sentences of this Dyck language include  ,  , [] , [] , and so on. Trivially, no strings starting with ] or ending with [ are in the Dyck language. And slightly less trivially, the Dyck language excludes strings like ] and [ in which the number of [ and ] aren't equal. Finally, strings with equal numbers of opens and closes are excluded if as you scan from left to right through the string a ] ever occurs when there is no earlier unmatched [.
Another way to think about this is that as you scan from left to right, you add 1 to a total whenever you see [ , and subtract 1 whenever you see ]. If the total is always non-negative as you scan through the string, and is zero at the end, then the string is in this Dyck language. Otherwise it isn't. Actually, the situation is just a little more complicated: in the general case, a Dyck language can have more than one pair of matching types of parentheses. Each type of parentheses in a Dyck language needs to match up pairwise in just the same way that a single type of parentheses does.
Now, Dyck languages are a simple and obvious case of string-sets that can't be handled by a "finite automaton". The "non-finite" aspect here is that you might need to count up an arbitrary number of left parens before counting down the same number of right parens. You can try to handle that by setting up a state that means "I need to find one right paren", and another state that means "OK, now I need to find two right parens", and another state that means "now we need three right parens", and so on.
That will work as long as the input never stacks up more left parens than than the number of states you've set up -- but the number of left parens that might occur in the input is not bounded. Though to handle a Dyck language with one kind of parenthesis and strings no longer than six, you'd only need three states, etc In fact, Dyck languages have a special relationship to the general class of context-free languages. For everybody else, let's just say that any critter that can handle context-free languages in general ought to be able to deal with Dyck languages.
But anyone who has ever written a computer program knows that it's not trivial for humans to keep track of balancing parentheses. Quick, tell me whether the parentheses in this expression balance or not:. It's hard to tell -- and that's why many text editors for programmers flash the corresponding left parenthesis when you type a right parenthesis, or offer other forms of paren-tracking help.
It's no easier for humans to keep track of a Dyck language in acoustic rather than textual form. To illustrate this, I've written a little program that will map parenthesis-language strings onto sequences of two pitches -- e and c, if you're keeping track musically. Consider the higher pitch to represent an open parenthesis, and the lower pitch to represent a close parenthesis. Then you can listen to a sequence of such strings, and ask yourself whether each string is in the Dyck language or not. Let me make it easier for you. The sequence above either a starts out with a sequence of Dyck-language strings, and ends with a sequence of non-Dyck-language strings; or b starts with a sequence of non-Dyck strings, and ends with a sequence of Dyck strings.
So all you need to do is to get used to whatever the pattern is when the music starts, and raise your hand when the grammar changes If you're like every other human I've tested, you find this task pretty hard. If you're quick and you care enough, you can count on your mental fingers, so to speak, adding one for each higher pitch and subtracting one for each lower pitch, and "parse" the sequence that way. But the difference between the Dyck and non-Dyck patterns is not, in the general case, cognitively salient to humans without intellectual scrutiny.
In contrast, we don't need to count on our mental fingers to understand the structures of real spoken language. And I'd be astounded if the difference between Dyck and non-Dyck strings is cognitively salient to starlings or to any other animals either. That doesn't mean that human languages shouldn't analyzed in terms of something like context-free grammars.
Nor does it tell us whether starlings' songs should be so analyzed. But I think it indicates that the ability to learn to discriminate auditory patterns generated by different sorts of grammars is probably not a reliable indication of what sorts of grammatical generation and analysis animals employ in natural, ecologically valid activities.
At least, if this type of pattern-discrimination is the criterion, then humans can't handle context-free grammars either. I created the midi file using the terrific free software program keykit , using a couple of trivial little programs to generate random Dyck strings and random finite-state strings over the same alphabet, and to map them to keykit inputs.
If anyone wants the programs to make stimuli for some real experiments, let me know. But I'm willing to place a bet in advance on how the experiments will come out It's not clear why he didn't offer similar views on the Fitch and Hauser paper; perhaps no one asked him at the time, or perhaps he liked its conclusions better.
I guess it's conceivable that he thinks that Gentner et al. I mention this last point because Tiago at first misinterpreted this post to mean that we were upset. This is a good example of how affect can be misunderstood in virtual conversations, especially when irony is involved. Though I suspect that similar misunderstandings take place in real life much more often than is commonly realized -- it's just that we don't scrutinize recordings of our interactions, and so we less often come to be aware that such misunderstandings have happened. Much as I respect Lance, I have to disagree.
Having hit bottom, the folks at the Associated Press broke out the heavy excavation equipment and kept right on digging to come up with this :. While many animals can roar, sing, grunt or otherwise make noise, linguists have contended for years that the key to distinguishing language skills goes back to our elementary school teachers and basic grammar.
Sentences that contain an explanatory clause are something that humans can recognize, but not animals, researchers figured. Two years ago, a top research team tried to get tamarin monkeys to recognize such phrasing, but they failed. The results were seen as upholding famed linguist Noam Chomsky's theory that "recursive grammar" is uniquely human and key to the facility to acquire language.
- With Wings as Eagles.
- And it could well fail before ratification?
- MILES DAVIS SEXTET (the) / THELONIOUS MONK QUARTET (the) : LP Miles & Monk At Newport?
But after training, nine out of Gentner's 11 songbirds picked out the bird song with inserted warbling or rattling bird phrases about 90 percent of the time. Two continued to flunk grammar. More later on the science behind those immortal phrases. And really, I'm being somewhat unfair to the AP's science writers, as you'll see when we go over the press releases they were working from.
And some interesting discussion by Chris at Mixing Memory. David Beaver has a shorter comment, from a slightly different perspective, here. Why did the quoted AP story bother me so much? My main objection is the notion that this experiment has anything to do with "sentences that contain an explanatory clause". Even if we take Gentner's interpretation at face value, this asserts a kind of semantic content that the experimental materials clearly lacked.
Secondarily, it's not a helpful or accurate account of what happened in the experiment to say that the starlings "picked out the bird song with inserted warbling or rattling bird phrases". It's fair to respond that if I'm going to complain about the AP story, I ought to give an example of how to write about this work in a newswire-story style and at newswire-story length. I certainly haven't done this, since my discussion of the paper is way too long, way too technical and way too skeptical for a news story.
Well, as an old colleague used to say, if I only had more time I could write less -- and perhaps write more simply and more charitably, too. It looks like is going to be a banner year for misinformed reporting on the English language. Numerous journalists have already swallowed the absurdly specious claim that the English language is going to add its millionth word some time later this year.
But doesn't "one million" sound a little paltry? Well, never fear. Today the Associated Press trumpets even bigger news:. That's how the headline reads on Yahoo! We've already seen ample evidence that news organizations relying on the AP wire very often reproduce the headlines provided to them in an entirely uncritical fashion. A massive language research database responsible for bringing words such as "podcast" and "celebutante" to the pages of the Oxford dictionaries has officially hit a total of 1 billion words, researchers said Wednesday.
Drawing on sources such as weblogs, chatrooms, newspapers, magazines and fiction, the Oxford English Corpus spots emerging trends in language usage to help guide lexicographers when composing the most recent editions of dictionaries. The press publishes the Oxford English Dictionary, considered the most comprehensive dictionary of the language, which in its most recent August edition added words such as "supersize," "wiki" and "retail politics" to its pages.
Oxford University Press lexicographer Catherine Soanes said the database is not a collection of 1 billion different words, but of sentences and other examples of the usage and spelling. So there you have it: it's a lexicographical corpus of texts that has hit a billion words, and like any corpus it contains lots and lots of duplicated lexical items. How unobservant does a headline-writer or copy editor have to be to construe this to mean that the "English language" has hit a billion words?
Apparently the good people at Oxford have a corpus that encompasses the entire language! Pretty darn impressive. Kudos to those news outlets that recognized the AP headline as bunk and provided their own, though they're few and far between:.
A tip of the hat to Lance Nathan, who observes that the outrageously inflated headlines paradoxically represent "new lows in linguistic reporting. Now that Tony Snow has officially been announced as the new White House Press secretary, I want to remind our readers that Language Log was ahead of the curve in recognizing his rhetorical accomplishments. But the news coverage has clued me in to something that I didn't know about, namely the web site of Snow's rock band Beats Workin'.
Though there aren't any sound samples on the site, I doubt that Snow's band can compete with the bad-boy ghost of Lee Atwater OK, it's time for our occasional over-interpretation of a cartoon. Zeno at Halfway There interprets this cartoon in terms of layers of irony:. In his Bizarro cartoon panel for April 22, , Piraro takes a worthwhile shot at couples who inflict their self-written wedding vows on their guests. Piraro has committed misplaced modification and left a participial phrase dangling. Zeno thinks that Dan Piraro has committed this error unwittingly, and thus fallen victim to "the Iron Law of Nitpicking", which Zeno expresses this way:.
You are never more likely to make a grammatical error than when correcting someone else's grammar. Piraro imagines that the minister commits this breach of grammatical etiquette unwittingly, while sincerely praising the couple's compositions; or 2. Piraro imagines that the minister is using the dangling adjunct on purpose, as an echoic criticism of the couple's home-made vows. Under interpretation 1, the minister falls victim to Zeno's "Iron Law"; under interpretation 2, no one does.
Under either interpretation, the cartoonist Piraro himself is innocent of linguistic fault. When I first read the cartoon, I interpreted it in mode 2; after some reflection, I switched to mode 1; I didn't think of Zeno's interpretation until I read his blog entry.
What do you think? In the present instance, it behooves me to keep this post short, thereby reducing the likelihood that I will commit some egregious error therein. When you, Dear Reader, find the inevitable faux pas , please try to be gentle as you denounce my sin in the comments. Erin McKean : Verbatim Magazine , Summer "Any correction of the speech or writing of others will contain at least one grammatical, spelling, or typographical error.
And Jason Streed of Finches' Wings has observed that a closely-related concept was explored in by Ambrose Bierce:. In neither taste nor precision is any man's practice a court of last appeal, for writers all, both great and small, are habitual sinners against the light; and their accuser is cheerfully aware that his own work will supply as in making this book it has supplied many "awful examples" — his later work less abundantly, he hopes, than his earlier.
He nevertheless believes that this does not disqualify him for showing by other instances than his own how not to write. The infallible teacher is still in the forest primeval, throwing seeds to the white blackbirds. In this case, I think that most linguists would prefer to talk about "the subject of the clause" rather than the "referent of the clause". I wasn't going to say anything about this, since it's clear enough what Zeno means, and I'm not a nitpicking kind of person; and for that matter, as a mere phonetician I might have missed a new syntactic theory out there according to which participles refer to their subjects.
But since several readers have written in to raise the point What does it mean to KNOW something anyway? Arizona, No. Clark, who shot and killed a Flagstaff policeman in see here. He was found incompetent to stand trial and after three years of treatment in a mental hospital, he could no longer have an insanity defense because of the odd statutes in the state of Arizona that bar the defense from using evidence of diminished capacity.
This state only allows a defendant to plead "guilty except insane," apparently ignoring the fact that Clark was so mentally disturbed that he thought he was shooting a space alien. The M'Naghten rules, followed by most states, say that insane persons do not KNOW the nature and quality of the criminal act and that they don't KNOW that they are doing anything wrong. But these rules appear to be unimportant in Arizona.
Now that Clark has been deemed sane, he still has to account for what he did six years ago, when he wasn't. The state's lawyer tried to explain this saying, "the state has discretion to define insanity as it sees fit. When Chief Justice Roberts asked him about what was so different about barring mental illness as evidence of intent but not barring other evidence, such as failure to be able to understand English, the state's lawyer replied that this question is too complex to ask a judge to decide.
It's hard to decide where to begin with this kind of reasoning. Everyone agreed that Clark was so deluded that he believed the officer was a space alien 1. A sane person would have good reason to believe it was a policeman 2 and that his uniform or something else would provide probability of this 3.
MILES DAVIS SEXTET (the) / THELONIOUS MONK QUARTET (the) : LP Miles & Monk At Newport
But it's hard to understand how a mentally ill person who believed the victim was a space alien would even get to steps 2 and 3. When the police stopped his car because his loud radio was creating a nuissance, Clark claimed he was trying to drown out the voices in his head. Now we somehow add intentionality to knowing. The court's admission that Clark was "guilty except insane" is tantamount to admitting that he was, indeed, insane.
The intentions and plans of insane people are even more difficult to infer than the plans and intentions of sane people. I wouldn't want Arizona to write my dictionary. It looks like Arizona could use a large dose of sociolinguistic audience context. Clark clearly intended to shoot a space alien but he had no reason to believe he would have done this if he didn't have a twisted sense of reality. In his mind, he shot a space invader, not a policeman. Arizona could also do with a dose of term clarification.
Maybe the state can define insanity how ever it wants, but that sounds a lot like Humpty Dumpty's way to define words: "words mean what I want them to mean, nothing else, nothing more. It would probably be better for Arizona to abolish the insanity defense than to pretend that it can KNOW what people are thinking, especially when they are insane. I don't think that Ms. McCafferty has a valid suit for copyright infringement, nor do I think that Ms.
Viswanathan is guilty of plagiarism. Let's dispose of copyright infringement first. Even if Ms. Viswanathan had copied 24 passages literally from Ms.
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That falls well within the amount of copying permitted by the Fair Use doctrine. I doubt very much that any court would decide in favor of Ms. McCafferty on this point. Moreover, Ms. McCafferty would receive no actual damages because Ms.
Viswanathan's borrowing cannot be said to have reduced the market value of Ms. McCafferty's work. I am not a lawyer, much less Ms. McCafferty's lawyer, but I don't think she's got a case. Turning now to plagiarism, I agree with Geoff that the similarities between certain passages in the two novels are very unlikely to be due to chance. I don't think that a monkey sat down one day at Ms.
Viswanathan's computer and in the course of randomly pecking away at her keyboard typed them in. That means that they are not accidental. The decisive question with regard to the charge of plagiarism is whether Ms. Viswanathan knowingly copied from someone else's work. I submit that there is no good reason to believe that she did and moreover that it is highly implausible that she did.
Let's look first at plausibility. If you think that Ms. Viswanathan engaged in plagiarism, what exactly do you think that the scenario was? It is pretty clear what happens in cases of out-and-out plagiarism. For example, a junior faculty member, under pressure to publish before his or her tenure review, copies someone else's paper and submits it to another journal. The potential gain is clear: an additional career-advancing publication at the cost of a small fraction of the time it would take to write it.
The potential cost is also great - loss of a job and possibly loss of a career - but the "author" reasons that the chance of detection is small enough to be worth the risk. Or, a student, lazy or out of time for reasons good or bad, copies someone else's term paper and submits it as his or her own. Here again the potential benefit is clear: a much better grade than if the student were to submit no paper or one hastily assembled.
The potential cost is also fairly great - ranging from a failing grade to expulsion - but if the source of the plagiarized paper is well chosen the student may well consider the risk of detection to be small. In such cases as these, the perpetrator clearly derives a substantial benefit at what he or she believes, often with reason, to be a small risk. Without meaning to justify their actions, one can easily see why a dishonest but rational person would engage in plagiarism. The question is, is there any plausible parallel scenario in which, if we assume, for the sake of argument, that Ms.
Viswanathan is dishonest but of normal rationality, she would have plagiarized the passages in question? I submit that there is not. On the one hand, unlike term papers and obscure academic journal articles, best-selling novels are read by a lot of people, and novels of the same sort are likely to be read by the same people. The risk of detection is therefore fairly high. On the other hand, what had she to gain? Remember, the passages in question are a miniscule part of her book and of no particular importance or salience.
He is twenty-five years old, and his boss, Bernie, is forty-four. We spend Good Friday, with them in the barber shop. Product Details About the Author. He lived on the beach in Belmont Shore, a neighborhood in Long Beach, California, for nine years in the s. He and his wife Janet moved to Santa Cruz, California in These three cities are the settings for his ten novels. Average Review.
Write a Review. Related Searches. An anthology of 50 classic books adapted into movies. An active table of contents us An active table of contents us included to make it easy to quickly find the book you are looking for. View Product. An Incident of Travel: A Record of the. What must it have been like to make a tour along unpaved roads, through several What must it have been like to make a tour along unpaved roads, through several states, in a cantankerous motorcar circa ?
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In cazul cafelei vrac, trebuie sa aveti grija, pentru ca de obicei nu se stie cu cat timp in urma a fost prajita. Foarte simplu: au fost pictate cu cafea. Adaugand mai multe straturi de espresso, Karen a reusit sa obtina gama variata de nuante cu care isi realizeaza ii vede tablourile si nu este impresionat de calitatea artistica a acestora, cu siguranta va fi vrajit de mirosul pe care acestea il degaja.
Unele studii indica cresterea colesterolului rau LDL datorita diterpenelor din cafea. Compozitia si proportiile fiecarui amestec variaza de la negustor la negustor, si uneori exista chiar si secrete bine pastrate. Mergi cu rasnita spre fin, pana blochezi espressorul, apoi coboara, dozand mereu la fel 15g sa zicem , pana ajungi la curgerea ideala.
Aveti posibilitatea de a alege produsule GUESS Hotspot in culoarea , acesta fiind disponibil in mai multe culori si nuante. Vei avea nevoie de un cuptor care poate sa incalzeasca boabele la cel putin de grade C. Odata cu cuptorul vei avea nevoie de tigaie pentru racit si de lingura de lemn. Aritcolul este foarte interesant si folositor celor ce se straduiesc sa gaseasca cafea de calitate. Se toarna spuma de lapte sau frisca cu foarte multe grija, pentru a nu se dizolva inainte de a fi servita. De exemplu, gigantul american Starbucks, este cel de-al treilea cel mai mare lant de restaurante din SUA.
Cu aceeasi ocazie a incercat prima oara cafeaua lui Napoleon, cafeaua Sfanta Elena, care l-a impresionat prin calitatile ei, si cafeaua Jamaica, precum si alte cafele rare gourmand, despre care doar auzise de la mentorul sau, care nu reusise nici el sa le obtina pe vremuri, desi era cel mai respectat negustor de cafea al Capitalei. Aciditatea unor calitati din acest sort de cafea este atat de puternica, incat esenta pura obtinuta din aceste boabe coaguleaza frisca.
Cafea de calitate , cu aspect maroniu deschis, curat, boabe mari, lipsite de orice defect, in comparatie cu niste boabe maroniu inchis, multe dintre ele deja faramate, de dimensiuni foarte mici, si mirosind a…ars si seminte de floarea soarelui. La jumatatea secolului 19, boala rara a plantelor s-a raspandit prin plantatiile de cafea din Asia de sud-est si culturile au fost compromise. La altitudine de zero metri, apa fierbe la de grade, punct, chiar daca iti place tie sau nu, indiferent ca tu crezi ca ea fierbe la a hundred and ten de grade sau ninety de grade.
Se foloseste ratie de fifty six grame la litrul de apa plata su filtrata sau respectand proportiile 28 grame d ecafea la ml sau 14 grame la ml. Totusi, este recomandat sa se limiteze consumul la maximum doua cesti de cafea pe zi. Cu toate acestea, Pascucci incepe sa scrie istoria in industria cafelei inca din secolul al XIX-lea, cand Alberto Pascucci a inceput businessul de productie de espressoare si productie de cafea.
E vital sa fii prezenta la evenimente de calitate, la evenimente ce tin de subiectele pe care tu le stii cat de cat si iti face placere sa le auzi, sa stii sa selectezi aceste evenimente. Din caisele proaspete se obtine crema, cu ajutorul unui blender, care se toarna intr-un pahar inalt. Se pune la fiert apa si cind da in fiert se pune cafeaua macinata proaspat sau pastrata in frigider si cand da doua clocote peste ea e gata ptr. Sunt plantatii unde arbustii de cafea sunt feriti de razele soarelui de umbra copacilor inalti, obtinandu-se calitate net superioara.
Nespresso Boutique embrace zona de degustare unde clientii sai pot explora si pot savura intreaga gama de 23 de sortimente de cafea Grands Crus, precum si editiile limitate. Impreuna cu un prieten, Paul Ungureanu, a deschis Bucharest School of Espresso, scoala de cafea independenta, menita sa educe oamenii din Bucuresti si sa-i initieze in lumea cafelei. Del Mar Events va pune la dispozitie four saloane de lux pentru ca evenimentele dumneavoastra sa aiba un succes garantat.
Cultivarea cafelei s-a extins fast in toate aceste tari si servitul cafelei a devenit un obicei zilnic placut. Dispozitivul de spumare iti prepara crema delicioasa de lapte, iar rezervorul de apa detasabil, cu volum de 1l, permite sa prepari cateva cesti de cafea pana la reumplere. Cardamom gasesti si la magazinele naturiste, sau poti cumpara cafea cu cardamom de-a gata, se numeste Coffee Fitness si este una dintre cele mai bune pe care eu le-am baut — are in amestec cardamom, scortisoara si un pic de cuisoare, care potenteaza aroma naturala a cafelei. Mai mult, studiile au aratat ca un consum moderat de cafea nu este asociat cu un risc crescut de hipertensiune, accident vascular cerebral sau boli coronariene.
Cele 9 zile sunt okay pentru consum, caci orice cafea are nevoie de un timp pentru a elimina parte din dioxidul de carbon, dezvaluindu-si aromele. F mult ma bucur ca ai scris despre cafeaua verde, auzisem de ea dar nu stiam actual ce si cum…mi-ar placea s- incerc! Am cumparat de la farmacie si sunt f multumita cutie de gr ma tine sapt consun de 2 ori pe zi cate three lingurite!
Revolutiei, bl. C12 , acolo unde poti alege din cele peste 20 de sortimente de cafea. Eu am utilaje, ma pricep sa prajesc cafea dar, trebuie sa am ce sa prajesc. Cercetatorii americani au realizat unele experimente in care au folosit iepuri avand dieta bogata in grasimi, carora le-a fost administrat in acelasi timp trei miligrame de cofeina pe zi, echivalentul unei cani de cafea. Dar pentru a scoate ce e mai bun dintr- cafea preparata la ibric trebuie sa avem granulatia cat mai fina petru a extrage toate aromele.
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Very nice post. It contains pleasant material. Login or register free and solely takes a few minutes to take part in this question. In jurul lacului Toba, cel mai probabil au Arabica amestecata cu specii locale-specii care, dupa introducerea plantei au evoluat adaptandu-se la clima, sol etc. Se va folosi ceasca pentru cappuccino dar cu mai putina spuma de lapte pentru a compensa volumul de frisca. La un espresso apa trece cu presiune prin cafeaua rasnita, preluand gustul intens, nu insa si cofeina.
Este un mannequin pe care-l recomandam, mai ales daca toata lumea din casa bea cafea, caci se potriveste excellent pe blatul din bucatarie. Cele mai multe probleme in utilizarea automatelor de cafea sunt cauzate de depunerile de calcar din boiler sau de pe instalatie. Ma rog, trebuie sa ai aproximativ 50 de mililitri de apa, pe care sa ii aduci la temperatura de fierbere de a hundred and ten grade. Daca doriti sa preparati cafea pentru mai mult de 6 persoane, ar fi preferabil sa faceti in mai multe reprize.
Pasul three. Evident ca exista multe alte locuri unde se prajeste industrial, cafeaua capatand marca anume si ajungand in cafenele sau supermarketuri. Insa, daca nu aveti probleme cu inima si nu va da stare de nervozitate, nu aveti de ce sa va faceti probleme, mai ales ca medicii chiar recomanda sa beti cafea. Un alt studiu a constatat ca femeile peste eighty de ani au avut rezultate mult mai bune la testele cognitive daca au consumat cafea regulat pe parcursul vietii lor.
Aici, depinde de gustul fiecarei persoane si de modalitatea in care doreste sa fie preparata cafeaua. Se decorticheaza imediat cum ajung la cooperativa, dupa care urmeaza procesul de fermentare umeda. Amestecati amidonul cu laptele de cocos si puneti-l pe foc, amestecand pana cand se ingroasa. Contine in mod evident serie de proprietati si, ca si cafeaua prajita, are efecte asupra tranzitului intestinal. Daca tot imi iau un aparat din asta, choose sa fac information si gata, nu sa fiu nevoit la perioada de cativa ani sa il schimb.
Dintre tipurile de cafea prezente pe piata, cafeaua naturala detine partea leului. Nu conteaza extraordinar de mult cum primesti cafeaua cu lapte rece, cald, crema pentru ca fiecare dintre noi avem preferinte insa cu cat espresso-ul este facut corect cu atat mai mult ai in fata ta in momentul acesta cafea cu lapte buna, care nu te inteapa pe gat si nici nu te trimite la toaleta.
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In fiecare ceasca se pune lingurita din aceasta spuma, iar ulterior se toarna cafeaua fierbinte, tare si aromata. Practic se repeta pasul 1 doar ca se trece cafeaua rezultata de la pasul 1 din nou prin filtru peste acelasi zat de cafea. Lasati sa se scurga bine cafeaua din filtru in cesti. Salut, sunt nou pe aici dar sunt placut surprins sa constat ca se gasesc destui oameni care isi doresc ceasca de cafea de calitate. Niste prieteni din copilarie s-au apucat imediat dupa revolutie sa vanda cafea Jacobs, contrafacuta. Arborele de cafea din specia Arabica poate atinge la varsta de 6 ani inaltime de circa 5 — 6 m, iar cel din specia Robusta ajunge pana la 10 — 15 m inaltime.
Daca adaugi si putina frisca, un strop de sirop si putin zahar vei obtine bomba calorica — vei bea mai mult un lapte indulcit decat cafea. In primul rand ca alimentele pastrate in frigider se dehidrateaza si astfel cafeaua se usuca excesiv, sau si mai rau, poate aboarbe various mirosuri de la alte alimente ce ii vor altera iremediabil gustul. Uite cum facea:intr-un ibric mic de arama metalul acela de culoare rosiatica ,punea apa, lingura de cafea si plimba ibricul pe plita ,care avea deasupra nisip fin,pana se fierbea si facea spuma.
Printre elementele ce merita amintite se numara: dispozitivul de macinare din ceramica, functie anti-calcar, sistem de spumare al laptelui, sistem de regalre a gradului de macinare, a temperaturii apei, sisteme de siguranta. Amazing article dude! Is there anyone else getting identical RSS problems? Anyone who knows the answer will you kindly respond? I like all the points you made. I think the admin of this website is actually working hard in favor of his site, because here every stuff is quality based data. Hi there, yes this article is genuinely pleasant and I have learned lot of things from it concerning blogging.
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Just wanted to mention keep up the great job! Good job. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to inform the reality nevertheless I will definitely come again again. Uma pessoa essencialmente auxiliar tornar severamente artigos Talvez estado. Aceasta are un continut mult mai mare de cofeina decat Arabica, de aceea si gustul de Robusta este mai neplacut, cofeina avand un gust amar. In cazul in care se doreste cafea mai putin concentrata, dupa trecerea apei prin filtru, se mai adauga apa fierbinte.
Eu beau una dimineata si una slaba pe la three-4 si n-am probleme, dorm ca un prunc. Iesenii pot apela cu incredere la Odaia cu cafea, magazin amplasat in Bd. Stefan cel Mare si Sfant, nr 1C. Pe langa cafea, clientii pot achizitiona si zeci de sortimente de ceaiuri importate din Germania. Cafeaua solubila este produsa prin eliminarea apei din aceasta solutia de cafea folosind una din doua metode, spray drying si freeze drying. Pasul 2. Daca nu esti fan ibrik sau espresso imaginea de mai jos iti arata ce vei regasi in cafea in functie de metoda de pregatire aleasa.
Vestea buna este ca unele espressoare, Gaggia de excemplu, suporta inlocuirea tevii cu cea de la Rancilio Silvia, rezultatele fiind mult superioare. Arborele de cafea este foarte prietenos. Verificati daca lavanda a fost udata corespunzator. Pana intr- zi cand am inlocuit filtrul de cafea cu un espressor pe care il alimentezi cu boabe. In alegerea aparatului de cafea very best pentru acasa trebuie sa se ia in calcul acest aspect, caci un aparat manual va necesita un timp mai indelungat pentru a pregati cafeaua, iar daca dimineata trebuie facute mai multe bauturi intr-un timp scurt, atunci un espressor guide nu este solutie.
Arabica si Robusta difera in mai multe privinte: gust, pret, conditii de cultivare. Cafeaua la fel ca si vinul are foarte multe criterii de selectie, conteaza proportiile de arabica si robusta, aciditatea, gradul de prajire, originea, de unde este cumparata, bugetul alocat, perioada zilei cand consumam si ce ne dorim de la aceea cafea! Nu este usor sa prepari la bloc, dar, daca stai la vila, merita sa te dai mare.
Exista termometre in fiecare canata in care se prepara laptele- daca temperatura nu are intre sixty six-seventy four de grade pentru laptele fiert, el nu se mai foloseste. Daca doriti sa preparati acasa cafea turceasca traditionala, in primul rand trebuie sa achzitionati un ibric special creat pentru prepararea acestei bauturi. Poti alege cat de mult sa fie maruntite boabele sau ce cantitate de cafea sa folosesti pentru un anumit volum de apa.
Consumatorul din mine intelege si de ce la barurile romanesti rar se bea cafea buna. Va puteti duce la cafenea sau la magazinele specializate pentru a va achizitiona aceste cafele delicioase aromatizate sau va puteti crea propria cafea acasa. Un alt moment bun din zi pentru a bea cafea, in care acest hormon este in scadere, este intre orele 13 — Tipul de granularitate al acestui aparat, poate fi reglat in 5 trepte, de la cea mai fina macinare, pentru cafea concentrata, pana la macinare grosiera, pentru cafea mai usoara.
Unii apreciaza cafea cunoscuta, altii spun ca au incercat si nu au fost multumiti. Cum este acest loc renumit din Capitala unde se imbina aromele a 40 de sortimente de cafea din toata lumea. Pentru prepararea cafelei vietnameze avem nevoie de un filtru special de cafea, si cafea de cicoare sau cafea normala. Pe lista cafenelelor din tara cu care a mai colaborat Simion se numara si Creamier, cafenea din zona Ateneului Roman, care ofera cafea de specialitate si inghetata artizanala. Exista multe metode de divinatie in lume, insa viitorul din cafea este considerat cel mai exact si sigur.
Cafeaua Robusta este originara din bazinul Congo si este preponderent folosita pentru a da tarie altor cafele. Investitie de inceput poate fi euro pentru un automat sh sau euro pentru un automat nou. Ibricul cu apa impreuna ce celelalte ingrediente se pun pe foc potrivit tinandu-se pana cand incepe sa se formeze la suprafata caimacul sub forma de spuma, fara a lasa sa dea in fiert. Am si eu un espressor Saeco Poemia si pot sa spun ca sunt foarte , foarte multumit de el.
Exact cum a zis si Alexandra, dureaza un pic pana reusesti sa scoti laptele ca la carte pt un latte, dar pana la urma te obisnuiesti. Spre deosebire de cafeaua de origine din Costa Rica, cea din Guatemala este cafea mai acida si cu aroma profund fructata. De asemenea, este nepoliticos sa te retragi fara sa consumi cel putin trei ceni canute de cafea.
La unele persoane efectele sunt mai pronuntate sau mai estompate dar toti sunt influentati de aceasta licoare magica. Varianta de cafea italiana, pentru care — in reteta originala — una sau doua cescute de espresso sunt turnate intr- cana ce contine cantitati egale de lapte condensat si frisca; denumirea provine de la asemanarea bauturii cu robele bicolore, alb-negre, ale calugarilor din Ordinul Capucinilor.
Cercetatorul a recunoscut ca subseturi ale grupului mare pot prezenta risc pentru atacul de wire la mai multe cesti de cafea consumate pe zi, datorita diferentelor genetice de metabolizare a cafelei. UPC Wi-Free este un produs global care ofera acces simplu, gratuit si nelimitat la sute de mii de hotspot-uri din Romania. Ea poate sa difere de la cafea la alta in functie de serie de factori, precum modul de prajire al cafelei, granulatia acesteia dupa macinare si felul in care este pregatita. Problema cea mare este ca nu prea face spuma cremoasa,ci doar un strat subtire de spuma care dispare apoi dupa un minut.
Nu este indicat, in cazul cafelei folosite zilnic, pastrarea acesteia in frigider sau congelator, intrucat aerul cald patruns in recipient la fiecare utilizare condenseaza. Daca e ceva minor ma bag eu in aparat si repar, ma gandesc ca nu se pierde garantia doar daca desfac spatele. Asta in timp ce unii oameni isi beau cafeaua de ibric sau filtru in cani de ml insemnand ca cana la filtru poate contine mg cofeina. Pentru a se conecta la punctele de acces Telekom FON, cei interesati trebuie mai intai sa identifice un astfel de hotspot si sa se conecteze, dupa care sa deschida browser-ul pentru a fi directionati catre portalul FON.
Ei ziceau ca am semnal full, de ce a mai buna calitate in zona mea si de fapt cred ca un modem de 32kb ma batea la fund de departe. Aceasta pagina a fost creata particular pentru a oferii informatii cat mai complexe despre tipuri de cafea. Cei doi tineri si-au propus sa puna pe picioare afacere inedita: sa vanda cafea de specialitate to-go in cele mai mici spatii din Bucuresti. El a avansat ideea ca in galaxia noastra exista peste un milion de civilizatii dezvoltate. Masura mica de bucatarie este, de asemenea, necesara cand prajesti boabele de cafea acasa.
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